Boroscopic inspection is a non-destructive inspection method generally applied in all marine and industrial sectors. This monitoring method is ideal for mechanical equipment that is very expensive to open and disassemble. Inspection takes place when the equipment is not operating. It is performed through small holes a few millimeters in diameter by means of a special Orientale probe, which transmits images directly to an LCD / LED monitor and can acquire video as well as still images. The inspection work may involve high-voltages and the machines may have stored electrical/mechanical energy. Therefore, the inspection must be performed by a person with certification only, to ensure application of appropriate precautions and safe work methods.
Electro polishing, also known as electrochemical polishing or electrolytic polishing (especially in the metallography field), is an electrochemical process that removes material from a metallic work piece. It is used to polish, passivate, and deburr metal parts. It is often described as the reverse of electroplating. It may be used in lieu of abrasive fine polishing in micro structural preparation.
Typically, the work piece is immersed in a temperature controlled bath of electrolyte and serves as the anode as it is connected to the positive terminal of a DC power supply, the negative terminal being attached to the cathode. A current passes from the anode, where metal on the surface is oxidized and dissolved in the electrolyte, to the cathode. At the cathode, a reduction reaction occurs, which normally produces hydrogen. Electrolytes used for electro polishing are most often concentrated acid solutions having a high viscosity, such as mixtures of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid. Other electro polishing electrolytes reported in the literature include mixtures of perchlorates with acetic anhydride and methanolic solutions of sulfuric acid.
To achieve electro polishing of a rough surface, the protruding parts of a surface profile must dissolve faster than the recesses. This process, referred to as anodic leveling, is achieved by a mass transport limited dissolution reaction. Anodic dissolution under electro polishing conditions deburr metal objects due to increased current density on corners and burrs.
Electro polishing has many applications in the metal finishing industry because of its simplicity and it can be applied to objects of complex shape. Typical examples are electro polished stainless steel drums of washing machines and stainless steel surgical devices. Electro polishing is also commonly applied to the preparation of thin metal samples for transmission electron microscopy because electro polishing does not cause mechanical deformation of surface layers usually observed when mechanical polishing is used. Ultra high vacuum (UHV) components are typically electro polished in order to have a smoother surface for improved vacuum pressures, out gassing rates, and pumping speed.
The quality of a weld created by an orbital welding system (with the correct weld program) will be superior to that of manual welding. In applications such as semiconductor or pharmaceutical tube welding, orbital welding is the only means to reach the weld quality requirements.
Once a weld program has been established, an orbital welding system can repeatedly perform the same weld hundreds of times, eliminating the normal variability, inconsistencies, errors, and defects of manual welding.
Certified welders are increasingly hard to find. With orbital welding equipment, you don't need a certified welding operator. All it takes is a skilled mechanic with some weld training.
Orbital welding may be used in applications where a tube or pipe to be welded cannot be rotated or where rotation of the part is not practical. In addition, orbital welding may be used in applications where access space restrictions limit the physical size of the welding device. Weld heads may be used in rows of boiler tubing, where it would be difficult for a manual welder to use a welding torch or view the weld joint.
Many other reasons exist for the use of orbital equipment over manual welding. For example, applications where inspection of the internal weld is not practical for each weld created. By making a sample weld coupon that passes certification, the logic holds that if the sample weld is acceptable, that successive welds created by an automatic machine with the same input parameters should also be sound.